Help. Prof. Dr. Arisara Charoenpanyanet Lecturer, Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University
It has become another annual crisis in Thailand in February-April every year, where every department must mobilize to solve the problem of PM2.5 dust and smog in the country and neighboring countries. People flocking across the border into Thailand are joined by pollution from burning vehicles, transport systems, industry and the agricultural sector. This results in a dust and smoke zone weather across the country which has been accumulating for more than 10 years, leading to demands for a better quality of life for the people. Let the government prepare the “Clean Air Act” to give Thai people equal access to clean air.
If we study with understanding and get to the real cause of PM2.5 dust problem, we can alleviate the suffering of people across the country. It also leads to proper, holistic solutions in the long run. By considering all the information covering the economic, fiscal and financial mechanisms, including the determination of incentives and penalties under the Clean Air Act for the People… it has been approved by Parliament. This will make the law effective and efficient.
We need to work together to address the root cause of the problem with the government sector, the private sector and the public sector involved in solving urgent problems. Especially when it comes to instant burning. Guidelines to encourage all sectors to reduce burnout:
1. Government should have a clear policy to provide incentives like financial support to farmers who do not burn forest. But it is used as a raw material to create biomass” which is a more efficient use of resources. Or offer innovations that help reduce burnout
2. Mandating every private sector a traceability system. It also has a policy of not buying products that come from burning and forest encroachment. Also register buyers with traceability system.
3. Government should systematically allocate agricultural lands to the people and take measures to prevent burning and encroachment of forests.
4. Banks, especially agricultural and co-operative banks should have strict inspection measures and no loans or credits will be granted. Causes cultivation in illegal areas
5. The government should allocate a budget. Support the forest fire prevention team Purchase fire protection tools or equipment in setting up warning system. Suitable for every area
6. To encourage cooperation in establishing sub-district cooperatives. Collect agricultural waste to serve the harvest and use it to generate alternative energy
7. Teach about the effects of burning. Create values by not burning garbage and leftovers
8. Collaborate with neighboring countries especially ASEAN Member States to share knowledge on management and prevention as well as develop international cooperation to determine guidelines for transboundary smog prevention.
9. Government should provide support and encouragement. There were legal documents that allowed people to move from the encroached forest areas to farm in the plains.
Government sector should prepare big data to link agricultural production system in consistent and appropriate manner to solve PM2.5 toxic dust and long-term smog problems. Preparation of Agricultural Commodity Zoning Plans and adjustment of plan to develop cultivation of major economic crops suited to area and soil. Developing mechanisms to create incentives for farmers to switch to non-incineration of agricultural waste management, especially rice and corn animal feed, supply chain management, including products derived from non-incineration innovations. Take care of marketing strategies to ensure price stability and generate steady income. Creating carbon credit trading opportunities and transparent disclosure of information.
The government should take clear measures to support the users of electric vehicles and provide benefits to the car manufacturers to reduce the dust and fumes generated from the automobile and transport sector. Reasonably reducing costs and making prices accessible to the public. At the same time stringent laws and measures should be implemented to monitor air pollution emissions by the industrial sector meeting international standards.
The draft Clean Air Act, which is expected to come into effect in 2025, should include penalties such as fines or tax measures to control or stop activities that cause dust and smog. With PM2.5 dust pollution emitters, the solution to this problem is continuous and sustainable.
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